Left-arm spinner Ravindra Jadeja, who opened the proceedings for the hosts with pacer Umesh Yadav, struck twice to give India the upper hand.
Jadeja in his very first over of the day, trapped night-watchman Gareth Batty (0) plumb in front before dismissing make-shift opener Joe Root (78) just before the lunch break.
Off-spinner Jayant Yadav then piled on England's misery by dismissing danger-man Jos Buttler (18).
At lunch, regular opener Haseeb Hameed (13), who came at No.8 due to a hand injury and Chris Woakes (1) were at the crease.
Brief Score: England 283, 156/7 (Joe Root 78, Jos Buttler 18, Ravichandran Ashwin 3/41, Ravindra Jadeja 2/39) vs India 417.