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The piper and his cow

The piper and his cow
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My cow hasn’t been eating well for the last two weeks and there is a drop in milk production as well. Her udders are swollen and red as well. What should I do?
Mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common disease of dairy cattle throughout most of the world. The person milking her hasn’t cleaned his hands, or been rough in milking her or hasn’t cleaned her <g data-gr-id="77">teats</g> properly afterwards.  Although stress and physical injuries may cause inflammation of the gland, infection by invading bacteria or other microorganisms (fungi, yeasts and possibly viruses) is the primary cause of mastitis. Infections begin when microorganisms penetrate the teat canal and multiply in the mammary gland. In severe cases of acute, clinical mastitis - in many instances caused by E. coli infections - the cow may appear very ill indeed. In contrast, subclinical mastitis can result in few symptoms and may only be detectable in a higher than normal Somatic Cell Count.

Most of the indicative symptoms, such as the swelling, heat, redness and the milk abnormalities are a result of an immune response in the cow, the changes in milk constituents in particular caused by infection-fighting white blood cells attempting to eliminate the infective organisms which may further be responsible for producing toxins which damage the milk-producing glands within the udder, and can be responsible for permanent udder damage in some cases.

In some <g data-gr-id="78">instances</g> the cow’s immune response is sufficient to efficiently generate a self-cure for the illness, usually in mild cases of the disease where the cow is strong and has a good immune response.  The effective drugs are sulphonamides, penicillin and streptomycin.

My pet parakeet’s <g data-gr-id="69">nares</g> and <g data-gr-id="70">cere</g> are crusty. What does that mean?
The most common reason for this condition is a mite called Knemidokoptes. This usually appears as a fuzzy or crusty overgrowth of the tissue of the <g data-gr-id="80">cere</g> (the band of tissue over the beak), around the nares, around the skin of the eyes, around the vent or on the legs. This condition is usually found in young birds, but may also occur in older birds, as well. It may have a genetic component or may also be found in birds with a weak immune system. You probably are not either keeping the cage clean nor as you feeding the <g data-gr-id="84">bird .</g>You need to have a vet look at the bird. If not treated <g data-gr-id="83">properly ,</g> over time, it can result in permanent deformity of the beak or toenails.

25. I found a pair of baby squirrels in my backyard. They were quite noisy and restless so I gave them some <g data-gr-id="82">milk .</g> I dipped some cotton in a bowl of milk. How do I go about their care now?
Squirrels are not domesticated and do not make good pets. Always wear gloves when handling wild babies. They can carry diseases and parasites and are also able to bite at a young age. Try to reunite the baby or babies with their mom. If you think the mother squirrel may still be in the area and you have a good idea where the nest is that the babies came from, you can give the mother the opportunity to retrieve the babies. If a baby is sick, injured or cold the chances are that the mom will not come back to retrieve it. Place the babies in a box. You can place this box near the tree or area they came from. Make sure that the babies can’t get out of the box but the mother will be able to get in and get the babies.

If the babies still have their eyes closed, they will need a heat source to help them keep warm. Even on hot summer days baby squirrels can get chilled quickly. A bottle filled with hot water and covered with a sock can be placed near the babies. Test to be sure the temperature isn’t too <g data-gr-id="93">hot,</g> and place a tee-shirt around it to be sure it doesn’t roll onto the babies. Never feed the babies any kind of cow’s milk, goat milk, or soymilk. The squirrel should be kept hydrated and be fed puppy replacement milk or kitten replacement milk using a syringe. (Without the needle; mix one part of milk with three parts of water) If they won’t take the fluids, put a drop on their lips or poke a drop in their mouth so they can taste some of it first. Before and after each feeding of fluids you will need to gently wipe the genital and anal area with a warm, moist cotton ball or Q-tip until they urinate or defecate. <g data-gr-id="95">Otherwise</g> their stomach will bloat and may result in death.

When do puppies lose their baby teeth?
Puppy teeth are sharper than adult dog teeth. Unlike humans, dogs usually don’t notice or feel the difference when they lose a tooth. <g data-gr-id="89">Hence</g> the phenomenon often goes unnoticed. The sharper baby teeth make up for a lack of jaw strength while the stronger permanent teeth allow for better positioning and greater durability. Most dogs lose their baby teeth around 3 to 6 months. The teething period can be frustrating; the puppy clamps his mouth on everything he can reach, from body parts to sneakers, in an attempt to relieve the discomfort. Teething can be accompanied by drooling, irritability, and fluctuations in appetite.

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