One in five women unable to conceive due to TB: Survey
New Delhi: Tuberculosis in females is a chronic disease with low grade symptoms. Tubal factor infertility along with the involvement of the endometrium is the major cause of infertility. Women are more often affected than males that cause irregular menses, vaginal discharge with blood stains or excessive pain during intercourse and sudden pelvic pain. In a study by ICMR, over 50% of female patients coming for IVF procedure have been reported to have genital TB. In over 95% cases, the infection was found to affect the fallopian tube, 50% endometrium and 30% ovaries.
According to a senior gynecologist, "In Delhi-NCR region, one in every five women with TB are unable to conceive naturally which accounted for 40%." However it's difficult to diagnose presence of TB in genital tract, there are certain ways to detect them, like a sample of tissue taken from a woman suffering from TB of fallopian tubes, endometrial tissue is collected from uterus and sent to lab, where the bacteria are grown and later used for testing.
The most reliable method of diagnosis is making a histological diagnosis of tubercles, which helps doctors on laparoscopy to confirm whether these suspicious lesions are due to tuberculosis or not. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is also a very useful tool in visualizing the abnormalities in the uterus and the endometrium. And chronic infections can even lead to narrowing of the uterine cavity," said Dr Arvind Vaid, city-based gynecologist.
According to Dr Sweta Gupta, Clinical Director and Sr Consultant, Fertility Solutions, Medicover Fertility, "Tuberculosis causes tubal damage, resulting in rigid, pipe like tubes which further impairs transport of egg from the ovary. TB also causes endometrial damage (lining of the uterus where embryo implants) in 50-75% cases of genital TB. There is decrease in endometrial blood flow resulting in intrauterine adhesions which further hampers the implantation of embryo in the uterine cavity. When endometrium is damaged, it may lead to recurrent implantation failure, miscarriage and recurrent pregnancy loss."