Curbing animal cruelty
Is it legal for buffaloes and other animals to draw carts? Don’t overloaded carts legally amount to animal cruelty?
It is legal for buffaloes and other drought animals to draw carts as long as the carts are not overloaded and there is no cruelty involved in the process. The Prevention of Cruelty to Draught and Pack Animal Rules, 1965 prescribes the maximum weight such animals are allowed to draw for specific vehicles. Anything over the maximum weight prescribed in the rules will amount to animal cruelty.
General conditions for use of draught and pack animals:
-No person shall use or cause to be used any animal for drawing any vehicle or carrying any load
(i) for more than nine hours in a day in the aggregate.
(ii) for more than five hours continuously without a break for rest for the animal
(iii) in any area where the temperature exceeds 37 degrees Celsius during the period
Between 12.00 noon and 3.00 p.m.
-No person shall continue to keep or cause to be kept in harness any animal used for the purpose of drawing vehicles, after it is no longer needed for such purpose.
-No person shall, for the purpose of driving or riding an animal or causing it to draw any vehicle or for otherwise controlling it, use any spiked stick or bit, harness or yoke with spikes, knobs or projections or any other sharp tackle or equipment which causes or is likely to cause bruises.
-No person shall cause a horse to be saddled in such a way that the harness rests directly on the animal’s withers without there being sufficient clearance between the arch of the saddle and the withers.
Horses cannot carry more than 4 people. There are strict instructions for the weight oxen can carry.
Is there a specific law that lays down the rules for animals that cannot be slaughtered?
The Prevention of Cruelty to animals (Slaughter house) rules 2001 explicitly mention that there are some animals that are not to be slaughtered under rule 3 (2): No animal which -
(i) is pregnant, or
(ii) has an offspring less than three months old, or
(iii)is under the age of three months
(iv) has not been certified by a veterinary doctor that it is in a fit condition to be slaughtered.
Further there are some conditions under which animals should not be slaughtered:
-No animal shall be slaughtered in a slaughter house in sight of other animals
-No animal shall be administered any chemical, drug or hormone before slaughter except drug for its treatment for any specific disease or ailment.
What is kneading? Why does my cat knead?
Kneading is the motion cats make by rhythmically alternating their paws, pushing in and out against a pliable, soft object (such as a lap or a pillow). Not all cats knead in the same way; some never push out their claws at all, and some even use all four paws. While not all cats knead, it is a fairly common behavior for young and adult cats alike, so it’s likely your cat does it.
There are some theories that explain why cats do that. They are:
(i) A cat will knead when it’s feeling happy or content because it associates the motion with the comforts of nursing and its mother.
(ii) Some cats even suckle on the surface they’re kneading. Cats start to knead as kittens, while nursing from their mother. A nursing kitten kneads to help stimulate the mother’s milk production.
Cats may also knead to stretch out and limber themselves. The motion associated with kneading is also one that naturally stretches and pulls the paws of the feline, thus helping the cat keep itself limber.
The wild ancestors of domestic cats liked to lay down on soft, comfortable surfaces to either sleep or give birth to their young. By kneading down tall grass or leaves, cats were able to make a comfortable spot to lay down in, and also possibly to check the ground for unwelcome visitors lurking under the foliage.
Cats are territorial creatures, and one of the ways they safeguard their turf is to scent-mark their belongings. By kneading their paws onto the surface of an area, they’re activating the scent glands located inside the soft pads on the bottom of their paws, thereby marking that item as theirs.
Female cats have an additional reason for kneading: they’re known to knead their paws just before going into estrus — commonly known as “going into heat.” Kneading acts as a display to male cats that she wants to and is able to mate.
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