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All you need is love and a cat

All you need is love and a cat
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My cat vomited blood.
The vomiting of blood, can affect a wide range of systems, depending on the source. The gastrointestinal system may be affected due to trauma, ulcer, inflammation, or the presence of a foreign object. A hemorrhage may affect the heart (cardiovascular system), resulting in a heart murmur and/or lowblood pressure. Abnormally fast breathing due to severe hemorrhage can occur. A clotting disorder can lead to hemorrhage in the stomach or intestines. Other causes may be a disruption in the lining of the tube connecting the mouth and stomach, or an irritation of the stomach or intestines, which leads to inflammation, bleeding, and, eventually, the expulsion of blood through vomiting. Alternately, blood may originate from an inflammation or injury to the mouth or lungs , after which it is swallowed and then thrown up .The primary symptom of this condition is the presence of blood in the vomit, which may appear as fresh blood, formed clots, or digested blood which resembles coffee grounds. Other symptoms include lack of appetite , abdominal pain, and blackish, tar-like feces . A physical examination may also find a low red blood cell count  in which case additional symptoms can include heart murmur, weakness to the point of collapse, and rapid heartbeat.

Ulcers, or gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflamed bowels from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can both be causes .Various metabolic, neurological, respiratory and viral infections may be responsible  as can conditions such as liver failure, head trauma, or heartworm.

Coagulopathy, or lack of proper blood clotting, may result from liver failure, or a reduced blood platelet count due to drug exposure. Ingestion of rat poison can also be a cause of coagulopathy with concurrent vomiting.

Vomiting blood Hematemesis may also follow a traumatic incident, such as severe burns, heat stroke, major surgery, exposure to poisons from heavy metals such as iron or lead, and snake bites. 

Exposure to a delicate diet of easily digestible foods is recommended after incidents of hematemesis. Foods should be low in dietary fat and low in fiber so as not to stress the digestive system. Vomiting due to the ingestion of toxic substances can be avoided by ensuring that your cat does not have access to poisonous plants and foods.

My hamster has been urinating too frequently and is unusually bitey. He has also put on a lot of weight and hence has become extremely lethargic. What could be the reason?

Your hamster could be suffering from diabetes. Diabetes in hamsters is usually hereditary, but it’s suspected that an unknown environmental element may sometimes be a cause. Excessive drinking and increased urination can be signs of diabetes or kidney disease in hamsters. Your vet can test your hamster’s urine and blood to determine what is wrong. Diabetes and kidney disease can be fatal if not treated, but some hamsters respond very well to low-sugar or low-protein diets. If a hamster has high glucose but no ketones on testing, diet modification can help. Sometimes herbal supplements or medications to lower blood sugar (hypoglycemic agents) are used. Some people have used insulin either orally or by injection, but this is very uncommon and only on the advice of an experienced small animal vet, High glucose and ketones indicates a very unwell diabetic hamster that needs urgent vet attention. Often diet changes alone are not enough. A rehydration solution is used to replace lost salts as an emergency measure (it does contain sugars so hypoglycemic agents are often used as well). Adding salts to water should only be done when advised by a vet as it can seriously harm a hamster if used incorrectly. A diabetic hamster diet is higher in protein and fibre than a usual hamster diet, but lower in fat and carbohydrate. Any carbohydrates in the diet (as they should not be completely excluded) should be in their least refined form.

Why do birds migrate?
Migration can be triggered by a combination of changes in day length, lower temperatures, changes in food supplies, and genetic predisposition. Birds migrate to move from areas of low or decreasing resources to areas of high or increasing resources. The two primary resources being sought are food and nesting locations. Birds that nest in the northern hemisphere tend to migrate northward in the spring to take advantage of burgeoning insect populations, budding plants and an abundance of nesting locations. As winter approaches, and the availability of insects and other food resources drops, the birds move south again. Escaping the cold is a motivating factor but many species, including hummingbirds, can withstand freezing temperatures as long as an adequate supply of food is available.

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