Anderson has not recovered from a right shoulder injury sustained in the third Test against Sri Lanka last month -- a three-match series England won 2-0.
The Lancashire paceman’s place in the squad has been taken by uncapped seamer Toby Roland-Jones.
He will now pushing for a Test debut on his Lord’s home ground alongside Nottinghamshire quick Jake Ball, in the squad for the Sri Lanka series but also yet to make his maiden Test appearance.
“Jimmy has been touch and go for a while, he is making really good progress but it is the selectors’ view that he just won’t be quite ready for that first Test, hopefully for the second,” said England captain Alastair Cook at a Lord’s press conference previewing the four-match series on Thursday.
With struggling number three Nick Compton having taken time out of cricket, the selectors have recalled Yorkshire’s Gary Ballance for the first of a four-Test series starting on July 14.
But they opted against including one-day wicket-keeper Jos Buttler in the Test squad and playing all-rounder Ben Stokes, not fit for bowling following a knee injury, as a specialist batsman.
Roland-Jones, 28, has been in fine form for Middlesex this season, with 30 County Championship wickets at under 30 apiece. Ballance, 26 last played Test cricket against Australia at Lord’s last year.
This week he scored 132 in the first innings against Middlesex at Scarborough. England national selector James Whitaker said: “Building on the success of the Test series win against Sri Lanka last month, we have maintained our objective of retaining a balanced squad.
“With an injury to James Anderson, there is an opportunity for Toby Roland-Jones who has been a consistent performer in the County Championship over the last few years and deserves his chance.”
Former England batsman Whitaker added: “Gary Ballance is recalled to the Test squad for the first time since the winter series in South Africa and could play his first Test for England in 12 months.
Gary is mentally strong and we feel that he will add quality and experience to England’s middle-order,” he added.